Fifth Circuit expands scope of Title VII protection

The case of Hamilton v. Dallas County, 2023 WL 5316716 (5th Cir. Aug. 18, 2023) represents a pivotal shift in how the Fifth Circuit views claims of workplace discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The Fifth Circuit overturned nearly 30 years of precedent requiring employment plaintiffs to allege that they had been subjected to an “ultimate employment decision.” In doing so, the Fifth Circuit has broadened the category of actionable claims based on discrimination to allow lawsuits based on the “terms, conditions or privileges of employment”, a much more extensive category than previously existed.


The case was brought was by female Dallas County detention officers who alleged that a gender-specific scheduling policy, which only allowed male officers full weekends off, violated Title VII as the policy discriminated against them based on their sex. While both male and female officers got the same number of days off, the nature of those days off was gender-specific. Dallas County maintained this policy was in place for safety reasons.

Dallas County staunchly defended the "ultimate employment decision" criterion, warning that broadening the interpretation would result in an onslaught of frivolous lawsuits. In contrast, the female officers argued that this narrow criterion undermined genuine discrimination complaints. They advocated for a more inclusive interpretation similar to other circuits, emphasizing that decisions based on protected characteristics should be considered under Title VII even if they are not "ultimate employment decisions."

District Court Decision

Title VII is the anti-discrimination statute that seeks to protect against workplace discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex and national origin. For nearly three decades, courts in the Fifth Circuit restricted the kinds of actions that can be challenged under Title VII to those called “ultimate employment decisions”, which typically encompass pivotal actions like hiring, firing, promoting, granting leave, and altering compensation.

Based on this long-standing Fifth Circuit precedent, the district court in Hamilton dismissed the lawsuit, holding that the female detention officers’ scheduling issue was not an issue that constituted an “ultimate employment decision” but was, instead, a lesser concern related to the "terms, conditions, or privileges of employment." The decision was appealed.

Appeal and Further Developments

A three-judge panel from the Fifth Circuit upheld the district court's decision, recognizing the existing precedent. However, this same panel prompted an en banc rehearing, implying the significance of the case and suggesting a potential divergence from the established rule. In their urging, the panel pointed out the stark discriminatory nature of the policy and suggested that this case was an “ideal vehicle” to reconsider the Fifth Circuit's stringent stance on what qualifies as discrimination under Title VII.

On August 18, 2023 the en banc Fifth Circuit reversed and remanded. The court rejected the "ultimate employment decision" precedent as an unnecessary limitation on Title VII’s scope. The Court held that a plaintiff need not show an “ultimate employment decision” to state a “plausible claim of discrimination under Title VII.” The court highlighted that Title VII's language, which discusses “terms, conditions, or privileges of employment,” must be given full weight. According to the Fifth Circuit, this means that discrimination claims can arise from lesser adverse actions than traditionally recognized.

However, the Fifth Circuit clarified that not every minor adverse action would qualify. There must still be a minimum level of harm.” The court’s opinion did not specify what threshold a plaintiff must cross to demonstrate he/she has suffered a minimum level of harm. Instead, the court stated the determination of what standard should be applied to evaluate the precise level of minimum workplace harm in one’s terms, conditions, or privileges of employment would be left for another day.


Ultimately, the decision will have a ripple effect on workplace discrimination claims in the Fifth Circuit. While the Court failed to provide a bright-line rule for what is required to support a cause of action under Title VII, pleading a discrimination case under Title VII certainly got much easier. Plaintiffs will likely feel more empowered to challenge various discriminatory practices that might not have previously been considered actionable. With the Court broadening the interpretation of actionable behaviors under Title VII, employers might need to revisit and adjust their policies to avoid potential litigation.

Notably, the US Supreme Court will soon address a related issue in Muldrow v. City of St. Louis, No. 22-193, 2023 WL 4278441 (US June 30, 2023), determining the bounds of discriminatory transfer decisions based on gender under Title VII. The case is on appeal following the Eight Circuit’s affirmation of the district court’s grant of summary judgment in the Defendant’s favor on the grounds that the Plaintiff had not demonstrated “a material employment disadvantage”.

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